WHO Press Statement Related to the Novel Coronavirus Situation
The emergence of this new coronavirus is globally recognized as an important and major challenge for all of the countries which have been affected as well as the rest of the world. The Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has recognized this and invited the World Health Organization (WHO) to help them assess the situation and to provide guidance and recommendations. WHO announced it is pleased to work together with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
At this time there are some facts about this new disease that are understandable. However, this is a new infection and there are also many gaps in WHO’s knowledge that will inevitably take time to fill in.
WHO states that the disease is caused by a virus from a group called coronaviruses. One member of the coronavirus family is the SARs virus. This new virus is NOT the SARS virus. They are distinct from each other. However, the fact that they are related has added to the world’s concern. WHO states also that this virus has infected people since 2012, but it is not known yet where this virus lives. When people get infected, many of them develop severe pneumonia. What is not known yet is how often people might develop mild disease. Most of the persons who have been infected so far have been older men, often with other medical conditions. It is not yet sure why this pattern occurs and if it will change over time.
There are many other things that are not yet clear. For example, how are people getting infected? Is it from animals? Is it from contaminated surfaces? Is it from other people? Finally, it is not known how widespread is this virus, both in this region and in other countries.
The greatest global concern, however, is about the potential for this new virus to spread. This is partly because the virus has already caused severe disease in multiple countries, although in small numbers, and has persisted in the region since 2012. Of most concern, however, is the fact that the different clusters seen in multiple countries increasingly support the hypothesis that when there is close contact this novel coronavirus can transmit from person-to-person. This pattern of person-to- person transmission has remained limited to some small clusters and so far, there is no evidence that this virus has the capacity to sustain generalized transmission in communities.
At this point, several urgent actions are needed. The most important ones are the need for countries, both inside and outside of the region, to increase their levels of awareness among all people but especially among staff working in their health systems and to increase their levels of surveillance about this new infection. In Saudi Arabia, WHO sees the importance of better surveillance. When new cases are found, as is likely, it is critical for countries to report these cases and related information urgently to WHO as required by the International Health Regulations because this is the basis for effective international alertness, preparedness and response. Countries also need to assess their level of preparedness and readiness if this virus should spread and to intensify strengthening the core capacities identified in the International Health Regulations if they are not adequate. WHO is ready to assist countries in this region and globaly in these tasks, the statement says.
There are also some questions that urgently need to be answered including how are people are getting infected, and what are the main risk factors for either infection or development of severe disease. The answers to these questions hold the keys to preventing infection.
In closing, the statement says that the Government of Saudi Arabia has taken the novel coronavirus situation very seriously. The Ministry of Health has initiated crucial public health actions — including intensifying surveillance, initiating investigations and important research and putting control measures in place.
One of the reasons why more cases have been identified in KSA may be because they have gone ahead to strengthen their surveillance system and lab capacities and network.